For centuries, instrumental music had either been created by singing, or using mechanical music technologies, such as drawing a bow across a string that is strung on a hollow instrument or plucking taut gut or metal strings (string instruments), constricting vibrating air (woodwinds and brass) or hitting something to make rhythmic sounds (percussion instruments). Impressionism was a movement in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries in both art and music, which focused on mood and atmosphere. Prepared piano A piano whose sound is altered by placing objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, or pieces of felt between the strings of some of the keys. Welcome to Hello Music Theory! Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. The 20th century was a time of experimentation in classical music. The latterâs Rhapsody in Blue begins with an instantly recognisable clarinet glissando and makes frequent use of the blues scale: Non-American composers also took inspiration from jazz: Frenchman Darius Milhaudâs La CrÃ©ation du monde was inspired by the music he heard in Harlem, New York, while Englishman Malcolm Arnold composed a concerto for swing clarinettist Benny Goodman. The differences between melodies of the Romantic period and those of the 20th century is quite remarkable. Rock and roll developed from earlier musical forms including rhythm and blues, which had earlier been called race music, and country music. Even when longstanding genres were used, composers felt very comfortable abandoning the traditional structures of those genres. These composers were daring experimenters. The 20th century was clearly a period of widespread experimentation and many composers wanted the freedom to explore new compositional approaches without the restrictions and expectations that accompany traditional genres. An essay or paper on The 20th Century Style Music. Composers tended to stick to these and lots of the music composed during that time had a similar ‘sound‘. The internet has made music more accessible, making it easier for sub-genres to cross-pollinate and influence each other more easily. During the 20th century there was a large increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Examples include Cadillac Sky and Bearfoot. These are notes that are smaller than the semitones we generally use. Breakdowns are often characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity and sometimes by complex chord changes. In the mo st general sense: shape (contour, the variation of some attribute of a thing in space or time ), and structure (the disposition of , At the same time, the neoclassicism that became fashionable in the 1920s is represented by Stravinsky's opera buffa Mavra (1922) and his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927). Florence Price Period: 1887 to 1964. Because of the aggressive political environment, advances in technology, and major changes in style, music changed radically in … Both stressed emotion and depth, and focussed on the composer's individual feelings and interpretations.  The dance tune Cumberland Gap may be derived from the tune that accompanies the Scottish ballad Bonnie George Campbell. In the early twentieth century, electronic devices were invented that were capable of generating sound electronically, without an initial mechanical source of vibration. Debussyâs composition âLa Merâ depicts the sea, although he actually rejected the impressionist label: Impressionist painters like Claude Monet focused on portraying light and movement rather than realistically recreating the minute details of objects. Jan 1, 1900. Working in Stalinist Russia, Dmitri Shostakovich was forced to scale back his modernism in favour of a more populist, Romantic-inspired style in his symphonic works that was acceptable to the authorities, yet which remained highly creative, while his chamber works display more overtly modernist characteristics. The second half of the 20th century was void of a dominant style in music composition.  Steven Halpern's Spectrum Suite, released in 1975, is generally credited as the album that began the new-age music movement. The Common Practice era (which used a tonal system based on key centres and standard chord progressions, as well as structures like sonata form) had been in place since the Baroque period, and by the 20th Century there was a feeling that late Romantic composers like Wagner and Richard Strauss had done everything that could be done within this framework. In the second half of the century, prominent composers employing microtonality included Easley Blackwood, Jr., Wendy Carlos, Adriaan Fokker, Terry Riley, Ezra Sims, Karlheinz Stockhausen, La Monte Young, and Iannis Xenakis. Starting in the 1960s, the minimalist school focused on using minimal musical material and making use of repetitive patterns, loops and electronic techniques, reflecting technological advances of the day. FORM. Required fields are marked *. As a result, there is no regonisable unified sound to the music of this period, and it is, in general, much more stylistically divergent than the preceding eras of Western art music. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap or rap music, is a music genre formed in the United States in the 1970s that consists of two main components: rapping (MCing) and DJing (audio mixing and scratching). Weâll also see that new and exciting classical music continues to be created in the 21st Century. It is likely that young people were already among the main consumers of the dance crazes of the 1920s, although they were officially limited to expensive clubs that did not admit teenagers anyway. One of the most particular[clarification needed] operas of the seventies was Le Grand Macabre, by GyÃ¶rgy Ligeti.  See also rock musical and rock opera. Many composers working in the early 21st century were prominent figures in the 20th century. I’m Dan and I run this website. Form in 20th Century Music James Tenney, 1969-70 An edited version of this text was published in the Dictionary of Contemp orary Music in 1973. And because of its own expression and orchestral technique it does not fit into any other category but its own. Progressive bluegrass groups may use electric instruments and import songs from other genres, particularly rock & roll. , Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. 20th century music that uses of a tone row as a thematic basis for a musical composition. Period: 1887 to 1953. Grant, Morag Josephine. The 20th century and beyond. , Mostly instrumental pieces creating sounds of a soothing, romantic, mood-elevating or generally relaxing nature. Composers during the beginning of the 20th century rejected what they considered the harmonic excess of the late 19th century romanticism. Firstly going into some more detail on the major changes in 20th century… In the early decades of the 20th century, composers such as JuliÃ¡n Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alois HÃ¡ba, Charles Ives, Erwin Schulhoff, Ivan Wyschnegradsky turned their attention to quarter tones (24 equal intervals per octave), and other finer divisions. His students Alban Berg and Anton Webern developed this approach, which is sometimes referred to as serialism, and the three Austrian composers are collectively known as the Second Viennese School (with Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven being the First Viennese School). In the 1950s the film industry also began to make extensive use of electronic soundtracks. Composers now find at their disposal the sounds of many genres and periods, whether popular, esoteric or strangely traditional. This was atona… ... true of music in all periods. 1997. Schoenberg’s music became very atonal (not in any key). Enjoy digitised treasures from our collections, sound recordings, and newly commissioned articles. Music of the 20th Century JOHN CAGE (1912–1992) John Cage was known as one of the 20th century composers with the widest array of sounds in his works. "Art" music, for example, is generally regarded as by nature complex, difficult, demanding; "popular" music then has to be defined as "simple", "accessible", "facile". Although some composers chose to compose in older styles many sought to … Download my free eBook with all my favourite music theory resources. The development of powerful, loud guitar amplifiers and sound reinforcement systems in the 1960s and 1970s permitted bands to hold large concerts where even those with the least expensive tickets could hear the show. . Neither of these operas were completed in their composersâ lifetimes, however, so that the first completed opera using the twelve-tone technique was Karl V (1938) by Ernst Krenek. One of the most important developments in 20 th Century classical music was the effective dissolving of tonality. 10 Important Baroque Period Composers You Need To Know About, 10 Important Renaissance Period Composers You Need To Know About, 10 Important Composers of the Medieval Period. In this period, there was a drastic change in the music industry. The USA was now a force to be reckoned with in the world of classical composition for the first time, and a number of American composers looked towards the artform for inspiration, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland and George Gerswhin. Dan Farrant, the founder of Hello Music Theory, has been teaching music for over 10 years helping thousands of students unlock the joy of music. Along with acoustic instruments, electronic instruments started to be a part of the music scene. The 20th century composers were looking for something new, throwing away the rule books and all preconceived notions about composition, rejecting the norms of the "Common Practice Period." , In bluegrass, as in some forms of jazz, one or more instruments each takes its turn playing the melody and improvising around it, while the others perform accompaniment; this is especially typified in tunes called breakdowns. Modernism, impressionism, and post-romanticism can all be traced to the decades before the turn of the century, but can be included because they evolved beyond the musical … 2001. But, the 20th century saw composers start to escape from these broad traditions of the era and classical music branched off into lots of different sub-movements. BÃ©la BartÃ³k The Musical Quarterly Vol. Saxophones were used in some 20th-century orchestra scores such as Vaughan Williams' Symphonies No.6 and 9 and William Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. He made use of a prepared piano, which has objects placed on or between the strings to alter its sound, often making it more percussive. 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature I've told you that one of the best ways to understand a society is to look at the art, music, and literature it produces. , There are three major subgenres of bluegrass and one unofficial subgenre. In a sort of parallel to this, Debussy and Ravel rejected the tension and release of traditional cadence-based harmony in favour of tonality that was often more static, remaining within a mode like the whole tone scale, for example, for extended periods. Stravinsky's works, particularly after the highly acclaimed The Rite of Spring, did not emphasize tonality but felt restrained. Contemporary:1945 – present However, these sub-genres are normally lumped into one large category since there are so many diverse and opposing styles. Some younger composers such as Oliver Knussen, Wolfgang Rihm, Georg Friedrich Haas, Judith Weir, George Benson, Richard Barrett, Simon Bainbridge, John Luther Adams, Toshio Hosokawa, Bright Sheng, Kaija Saariaho, Tan Dun, Magnus Lindberg, Philippe Manoury, Olga Neuwirth, Rebecca Saunders, David Lang, Hanspeter Kyburz, James MacMillan, Mark-Anthony Turnage, Thomas AdÃ¨s, Marc-AndrÃ© Dalbavie, Unsuk Chin, Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf, and Michael Daugherty did not rise to prominence until late in the 20th century. Characteristics of 20th Century Music. In Music. Over ti… By taking recorded sounds – of instruments, the human voice or the natural environment, for example – composers like Pierre Boulez and Karlheinz Stockhausen would manipulate these raw materials and turn them into sort of musical collages. As the 20th Century continued, people came up with various inventive ways of challenging the very meaning of composition. Explore key works of early 20th-century classical music and discover the social, political and cultural contexts in which they were written. Meanwhile, his 4â33â – in which the performers do nothing except be present for four minutes and 33 seconds, meaning that the piece is actually composed of the sounds and atmosphere in the environment – is one of the most famous and controversial works of the modern era. His ballets, including The Rite of Spring, The Firebird and Petruska, especially, have cemented Stravinsky as one of the most important composers of the 20th century. [clarification needed]. Polka music rose in popularity in Chicago in the late 1940s after Walter âLiâl Wallyâ Wallace Jagiello created "honky" polka by combining the Polish-American rural polka with elements of Polish folksong and krakowiak. Twentieth-century orchestras generally include a string section, woodwinds, brass instruments, percussion, piano, celeste, harp(s), with other instruments called for occasionally, such as electric guitar and electric bass.. Similar sympathies in the second half of the century are generally subsumed under the heading "postmodernism".. In the early 20th century, many composers, including Rachmaninoff, Richard Strauss, Giacomo Puccini, and Edward Elgar, continued to work in forms and in a musical language that derived from the 19th century. The fourth factor to decisively shape 20th century popular music was the "youth culture". However, modernism in music became increasingly prominent and important; among the most important modernists were Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, and post-Wagnerian composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, who experimented with form, tonality and orchestration. It is, however, common opinion that musical tradition has ceased to be creative - that we have stopped creating and just embraced the works of old. 1. The invention of electronic instruments and the synthesizer in the mid-twentieth century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music. The 20th century was a mere hundred years, but this time period saw the hugest jump in human progress yet—and a fair share of tragedies, triumphs, surprises, and scandals along the way. Other operas of this period by composers identified as neoclassicists include Paul Hindemith's Mathis der Maler (1938), Sergei Prokofiev's Voina y Mir (War and Peace, 1941â1943), Bohuslav Martinu's Julietta aneb snÃ¡r (1937) and Francis Poulenc's Les mamelles de TirÃ©sias (1945). This music was generally more consonant-sounding and less overtly challenging than the modernist school, and composers like Phillip Glass and Steve Reich became incredibly popular: Musique concrete also utilised electronics. Schaeffer, P. (1966), TraitÃ© des objets musicaux, Le Seuil, Paris. For simplicity Later in the century his last opera, The Rake's Progress (1951), also marks the end of the neoclassical phase of his compositions. Neoclassical: A term applied to the music of early 20th century composers like Stravinsky which reflects the 18th-century music. This list sets out – non-exhaustively, and with plenty of omissions – ten of the most influential pieces of the 20th century, whose sounds ring out clearly in today’s contemporary music. It's Methodist and Holiness and Baptist. The 20th century period of music, as its name suggests, began around 1900. The major performing institutions of the 19th century have continued into the 21st century with only minimum structural change, except for a rather belated movement toward unionization of personnel; this development has of course improved the performers’ lot greatly, while increasing the costs of performance. Lots of music composed in the 20th Century did away with these rules, and the modernist movement did so in a particularly extreme way, in keeping with its ethos of rejecting tradition and embracing individuality. Elsewhere, composers like Charles Ives made use of microtones. Mauceri, Frank X. As well, composers and musicians used new electric, electronic, and digital instruments and musical devices. Henry Cowellâs Mosaic Quartet allows the players to play fragments of the music in various different sequences, meaning that the piece can sound different each time it is performed. With the mass-market availability of gramophone records and radio broadcasts, listeners could purchase recordings of, or listen on radio to recordings or live broadcasts of a huge variety of songs and musical pieces from around the globe. During the Romantic period, some forms used during the Classical period were continued but was made more subjective. But many pieces commonly thought of as "art" (Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, many Schubert songs, many Verdi arias) have qualities of simplicity; conversely, it is by no means obvious that the Sex Pistols' records were "accessible", Frank Zappa's work "simple", or Billie Holiday's "facile". What follows is my original version. In the early years of the century, Wagnerian chromatic harmony was extended by opera composers such as Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905; Elektra, 1906â1908; Der Rosenkavalier, 1910; Ariadne auf Naxos, 1912; Die Frau ohne Schatten, 1917), Claude Debussy (PellÃ©as et MÃ©lisande, 1902), Giacomo Puccini (Madama Butterfly, 1904; La fanciulla del West, 1910; Il trittico, 1918), Ferruccio Busoni (Doktor Faust, 1916, posthumously completed by his student Philipp Jarnach), BÃ©la BartÃ³k (Bluebeard's Castle, 1911â17), Leos JanÃ¡Äek (JenÅ¯fa, 1904; Osud, 1907; KÃ¡tÂ´a KabanovÃ¡, 1919-1921) and Hans Pfitzner (Palestrina, 1917). 20th Century music evolved both stylistically and characteristically, some of the overarching changes were outlined in the first blog post - this post aims to explore some of the style specific features - such as the characteristics of impressionism, expressionism, and neoclassicism. Electronic music was embraced by composers such as Wendy Carlos, Edgard VarÃ¨se, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Milton Babbitt, Pierre Boulez, Bruno Maderna, Henri Pousseur, Karel Goeyvaerts, Ernst Krenek, Luigi Nono, Luciano Berio, Herbert BrÃ¼n, and Iannis Xenakis. Some of the composers who influenced John Cage were Erik Satie (1866â1925), Arnold Schoenberg (1874â1951) and Henry Dixon Cowell (1897â1965). "Experimental Music Semiotics". In Beethoven's and Felix Mendelssohn's time in the 19th century, the orchestra was composed of a fairly standard core of instruments which was very rarely modified. Stravinskyâs Pulcinella and Sergei Prokofievâs Classical Symphony exemplify this as pieces that put a 20th Century twist on the stylings of 17th and 18th Century music. The musical era ranging from the 1900 to 2000 is termed as 20th century period. 2003. Richard Middleton writes: Neat divisions between "folk" and "popular", and "popular" and "art", are impossible to find... arbitrary criteria [are used] to define the complement of "popular". Rubin, Rachel, and Jeffrey Paul Melnick.  The development of sound recording and audio engineering technologies and the ability to edit these recordings gave rise to new subgenres of classical music, including the Musique concrÃ¨te (1949) and acousmatic (1955) schools of electronic composition. In the United States, the "Eastern style" Polish urban polka remained popular until about 1965. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as: "Scottish bagpipes and ole-time fiddlin'. This rather dissonant-sounding music dispenses with traditional harmonic function and lacks a key centre. We hope youâve enjoyed learning about and listening to some of this radical and hugely varied music. 33, No. Film music has become incredibly popular as an artform, and composers like John Williams and Hans Zimmer have helped bring classical-influenced music to a wider audience. There is no distinct transition between the romantic and 20th century music periods. Jazz originated in the early 20th century out of a combination of the Blues, Ragtime, Brass Band Music, Hymns and Spirituals, Minstrel music and work songs. "Polka". A compositional tradition arose in the mid-20th centuryâparticularly in North Americaâcalled "experimental music". These traditions consisted primarily of English and Scottish balladsâwhich were essentially unaccompanied narrativeâand dance music, such as Irish reels, which were accompanied by a fiddle. Elsewhere , Russian composer Igor Stravinksyâs use of rhythm was highly innovative, utilising frequently shifting time signatures. The 20th century period of music, as its name suggests, began around 1900. , In the sixties, the Bernd Alois Zimmermann opera, Die Soldaten (1965), had a great impact. The masterpieces he wrote revolutionised 20th-century music and spanned all genres, from orchestral to choral, and opera to ballet. Musical texture of Classical music is mostly homophonic but flexible. Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music. Several Appalachian bluegrass ballads, such as "Pretty Saro", "Barbara Allen", "Cuckoo Bird" and "House Carpenter", come from England and preserve the English ballad tradition both melodically and lyrically. For more examples see List of 21st-century classical composers. Busoni, Stra… Influenced by the music of Appalachia, Bluegrass has mixed roots in Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English traditional music, and was also later influenced by the music of African-Americans through incorporation of jazz elements. , Folk music, in the original sense of the term as coined in the 18th century by Johann Gottfried Herder, is music produced by communal composition and possessing dignity, though by the late 19th century the concept of âfolkâ had become a synonym for ânationâ, usually identified as peasants and rural artisans, as in the Merrie England movement and the Irish and Scottish Gaelic Revivals of the 1880s. BÃ©la BartÃ³k collected Hungarian folk tunes, which provided inspiration for his own work, while Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote an English Folk Song Suite. Composers also continued to incorporate their native folk music in their work, which was a tradition that began in the Romantic period. Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams, Aaron Copland, Alberto Ginastera, Carlos ChÃ¡vez, Silvestre Revueltas, and Heitor Villa-Lobos used folk themes collected by themselves or others in many of their major compositions. Postmodern:1930 – present 5. Late-Romantic and modernist nationalism was found also in British, American, and Latin-American music of the early 20th century. Further extension of the chromatic language finally broke with tonality and moved into the style of atonal music in the early operas of Arnold Schoenberg (Erwartung, 1909; Die glÃ¼ckliche Hand, 1912) and his student Alban Berg (Wozzeck, 1925), both of whom adopted twelve-tone technique for their later operas: Schoenberg's Moses und Aron, and Berg's Lulu.  Some bluegrass fiddle songs popular in Appalachia, such as "Leather Britches", and "Pretty Polly", have Scottish roots. 1900's Music ... it was also witnessed the popularity of Country and Western music in a variety of forms. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a related genre of country music. The relationship (particularly, the relative value) of classical music and popular music is a controversial question. He also experimented with 12-tone music, which is based on a tone row made up of all 12 notes from the chromatic scale in a given order, with all 12 given more or less equal importance, and then manipulated in various structured ways. Cole Porter Period: 1891 to 1953. The musique concrÃ¨te (French: âconcrete musicâ), developed about 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer and his associates, was an experimental technique using recorded sounds as raw material. Featured composers include Berg, Britten, Delius, Elgar, Holst, Ravel, Schoenberg, Smyth, Stravinsky, Vaughan Williams and Webern. The most internationally accepted postâWorld War II composer of operas was Englishman Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945; The Rape of Lucretia, 1946; Albert Herring, 1947; Billy Budd, 1951; Gloriana, 1953; The Turn of the Screw, 1954; A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1960; Owen Wingrave, 1970; Death in Venice, 1973)[failed verification]. All of the various changes that happened to music from the Middle Ages to the Romantic period contributed to the music of the 20th century. , Disco is an up-tempo style of dance music that originated in the early 1970s, mainly from funk, salsa, and soul music, popular originally with homosexual and African-American audiences in large U.S. cities, and derives its name from the French word discothÃ¨que.. A later, rock-influenced form is called "dyno" polka.. In music this was manifested in Neoclassicism, a movement that took influence from the Classical period. 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